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Monthly Archives: February 2014

Crash course: Asian cooking – signup!

May 6, 2016

Categories: classes

Explained: 10 spices to know

December 14, 2014

The world of spices is wast. Fusce dapibus, tellus ac cursus commodo, tortor mauris condimentum nibh, ut fermentum massa justo sit amet risus. Curabitur blandit tempus porttitor. Nulla vitae elit libero, a pharetra augue. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus.

  1. Black peppercorns
  2. Cayenne pepper
  3. Bay leaves
  4. Cinnamon, ground
  5. Cloves, ground
  6. Cream of tartar
  7. Cumin, ground
  8. Curry powder
  9. Ginger, ground
  10. Kosher salt

Curabitur blandit tempus porttitor. Nulla vitae elit libero, a pharetra augue. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus.

Categories: News Tags: , , ,

Pizza from wood oven

December 8, 2014

Pnean lacinia bibendum nulla sed consectetur. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et. Donec ullamcorper nulla non metus auctor fringilla. Maecenas faucibus mollis interdum.um.

Donec sed odio dui. Curabitur blandit tempus porttitor. Nulla vitae elit libero, a pharetra augue. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et. Cras mattis consectetur purus sit amet fermentum. Nullam id dolor id nibh ultricies vehicula ut id elit. Morbi leo risus, porta ac consectetur ac, vestibulum at eros. Vestibulum id ligula porta felis euismod semper. Donec sed odio dui.

Breakfast is ready!

December 8, 2014

Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula, eget lacinia odio sem nec elit. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et. Nulla vitae elit libero, a pharetra augue. Aenean lacinia bibendum nulla sed consectetur.

There is no sincerer love than the love of food.

Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Duis mollis, est non commodo luctus, nisi erat porttitor ligula, eget lacinia odio sem nec elit. Praesent commodo cursus magna, vel scelerisque nisl consectetur et. Nulla vitae elit libero, a pharetra augue. Aenean lacinia bibendum nulla sed consectetur. Cras justo odio, dapibus ac facilisis in, egestas eget quam. Etiam porta sem malesuada magna mollis euismod. Donec id elit non mi porta gravida at eget metus. Maecenas faucibus mollis interdum. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Aenean eu leo quam. Pellentesque ornare sem lacinia quam venenatis vestibulum.

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Categories: News Tags: , , , ,

Lovely trip to Irualione

February 27, 2014

Categories: vidoe

How to use chopsticks.

January 28, 2014

Overview of traditional Japanese cuisine

Breakfast at a ryokan (Japanese inn), featuring grilled mackerel, Kansai style dashimaki egg, tofu in kaminabe (paper pot)

Japanese cuisine is based on combining the staple food which is steamed white rice or gohan (御飯?) with one or several okazu or main dishes and side dishes. This may be accompanied by a clear or miso soup and tsukemono (pickles).

The phrase ichijū-sansai (一汁三菜 “one soup, three sides”?) refers to the makeup of a typical meal served, but has roots in classic kaiseki, honzen, and yūsoku cuisine. The term is also used to describe the first course served in standard kaiseki cuisine nowadays.[1]

Rice is served in its own small bowl (chawan), and each course item is placed on its own small plate (sara) or bowl (hachi) for each individual portion. This is done even at home. It contrasts with the Western-style dinners at home, where each individual takes helpings from the large tureens and plates of food presented at the middle of the dining table. Japanese style traditionally abhors different flavored dishes touching each other on a single plate, so different dishes are given their own individual plates as mentioned, or are partitioned using leaves, etc. This is why in take-out sushi the tamagoyaki egg and fish, or Blue-backed fish and white-fleshed fish are carefully separated. Placing okazu on top of rice and “soiling” it is also frowned upon by old-fashioned etiquette.[2] This is in sharp contrast to Chinese cuisine, where placing food on rice is standard.

The small rice bowl or chawan (lit. “tea bowl”) doubles as a word for the large tea bowls in tea ceremonies. Thus in common speech, the drinking cup is referred to as yunomi-jawan or yunomi for the purpose of distinction.

Kaiseki appetizers on a legged tray

In the olden days, among the nobility, each course of a full-course Japanese meal would be brought on serving trays called zen (膳?), which were originally platformed trays or small dining tables. In the modern age, faldstool trays or stackup type legged trays may still be seen used in zashiki, i.e. tatami-mat rooms, for large banquets or at a ryokan type inn. Some restaurants might use the suffix -zen (膳) as a classier though dated synonym to the more familiar teishoku (定食?), since the latter basically is a term for a combo meal served at a taishū-shokudō, akin to a diner.[3] Teishoku means a meal of fixed menu, a dinner à prix fixe[4] served at shokudō (食堂 “dining hall”?) or ryōriten (料理店 “restaurant”?), which is somewhat vague (shokudō can mean a diner type restaurant or a corporate lunch hall); but e.g. Ishikawa, Hiroyoshi (石川弘義) (1991). Taishū bunka jiten (snippet). Kōbundō. p. 516. defines it as fare served at teishoku-shokudō (定食食堂 “teishoku dining hall”?), etc., a diner-like establishment.

Emphasis is placed on seasonality of food or shun (旬?),[5][6] and dishes are designed to herald the arrival of the four seasons or calendar months.

Much lie the haiku poem, traditional Japanese cuisine strives to present seasonality (shun).[original research?]

Seasonality means taking advantage of the “fruit of the mountains” (山の幸 yama no sachi?, alt. “bounty of the mountains”) (e.g. bamboo shoots in spring, chestnuts in the fall) as well as the “fruit of the sea” (海の幸 umi no sachi?, alt. “bounty of the sea”) as they come into season. The the first catch of skipjack tunas (初鰹 hatsu-gatsuo?) that arrives with the Kuroshio Current has traditionally been greatly prized.

If something becomes available rather earlier than usual, the first crop or early catch is called hashiri.[7]

Use of (inedible) tree leaves and branches as decor is also characteristic of Japanese cuisine. Maple leaves are often floated on water to exude coolness or ryō (涼?), sprigs of nandina are popularly used. The haran (Aspidistra) and sasa bamboo leaves were often cut into shapes, and placed underneath or used as separators.Traditional ingredients

1303-04 Chopsticks 4

Further information: History of Japanese cuisine and List of Japanese ingredients

A characteristic of traditional Japanese food is the sparing use of meat (mammal meat), oils and fats, and dairy products.[8] Use of soy sauce, miso, and umeboshi makes them high in salt content, though there are low-sodium versions of these available nowadays.

Non-meat practice[edit]

As Japan is an island nation surrounded by an ocean its people have always taken advantage of the abundant seafood supply.[9] It is the opinion of some food scholars that the Japanese diet always relied mainly on “grains with vegetables or seaweeds as main, with fowl meat secondary, and mammal meat in slight amounts,” even before the advent of Buddhism which placed an even stronger taboo.[10] The eating of “four-legged creatures” (四足 yotsuashi?) was spoken of as taboo,[11] unclean, or something to be avoided by personal choice through the Edo Period.[12] But under this definition Whale meat and suppon (terrapin) would not be regarded as taboo four-legged meat. Meat-eating never went completely out of existence in Japan. Eating wild game, as opposed to domesticated livestock, tended to be regarded as acceptable, and slaughtered hare is counted using the measure word wa (羽?), normally used for birds.

sushi-slide10

Vegetable consumption has dwindled while processed foods have become more prominent in Japanese households due to the rising costs of general foodstuffs.[13]

Food oil[edit]

Traditional Japanese food, generally speaking, is not prepared using much food oil. An exception is deep fried types of preparation was introduced during the Edo Period due to influence from Western foods (once called nanban-ryōri (南蛮料理?) and Chinese foods,[14] and became commonplace with the availability of oil due to increased productivity.[14] Examples of these such as Tempura, aburaage, satsumaage[14] are now part of established traditional Japanese cuisine. Words such as tempura or hiryōzu (synonymous with ganmodoki) are said to be of Portuguese origin.

sushi-slide5

Also, certain homey or rustic sort of traditional Japanese foods such as kinpira, hijiki, kiriboshi daikon usually involves stir frying in some oil before stewing in soy sauce flavoring. Some standard osōzai or ”obanzai”(ja) dishes feature stir fried Japanese greens with age or chirimen-jako(ja) (dried small fish, young sardines).

Flavoring

See also Japanese flavorings

Traditional Japanese food is typically flavored using a combination of dashi, soy sauce, sake and mirin, vinegar, sugar, and salt. These are typically the only flavorings used when grilling or braising an item. During cooking, a modest number of herbs and spices are used as a hint or accent, or as a means to remove fishy or gamy odor, and include ginger, and takanotsume (鷹の爪?) red pepper.[citation needed] This contrasts conceptually with e.g., barbecue or stew where a blend of seasonings is used before and during cooking.[original research?]

Only after a main dish has completed its cooking are spice elements such as minced ginger and various pungent herbs added as a garnish, called tsuma.[citation needed] In some underseasoned dishes, a dollop of wasabi, and grated daikon (daikon-oroshi), or Japanese mustard are provided as condiment.[citation needed] A sprig of mitsuba, a piece of yuzu rind floated on soups are called ukimi.[citation needed] Minced shiso leaves and myoga often serve as yakumi, or a type of condiment to go with tataki of katsuo or soba.[citation needed] Minced or crumpled nori and flakes of aonori are seaweeds used as an herb of sorts.[citation needed]

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_cusine

Categories: Uncategorized

Sushi Etiquette 101

January 28, 2014

Dear BA Foodist,
Whenever I go out for sushi, I feel self-conscious. Is it okay to use your hands? Is dipping the sushi in soy sauce frowned upon? How do I use wasabi? All my friends have different rules, but what’s right?
–Clement Skillman, Seattle

Dear Clement,
Every time I have sushi, some self-proclaimed sushi expert schools me on new etiquette. The latest was a friend who told me I shouldn’t be drinking sake with my sushi. Something about eating rice (from which sake is made) with rice. He said it was considered bad form in Japan. I later found out that he was full of it. So what are the rules when it comes to eating sushi? I thought it best to consult Hiroko Shimbo, cookbook author, teacher, and Japanese food guru.

1. Always sit at the sushi bar. Make eye contact with the head sushi chef (traditionally the one closest to the entrance), or with the junior chef nearest to you. Ask what’s fresh: This shows you’re serious about your sushi and makes it more likely you’ll get the freshest fish.

2. When eating nigiri sushi (rice topped with fish) or sushi rolls, use your hands, not your chopsticks (since the loosely packed rice in well-made sushi will fall apart if pinched). For sashimi, use chopsticks.

3. Don’t drown the fish. You know how some people immediately dump salt on their food? Among sushi fans, the equivalent is a person who immediately dunks into soy sauce. A little is fine, but don’t dip the sushi rice-side first–it will crumble. Instead, flip the piece over and let the fish barely touch the liquid. As for what to do with the wasabi: Nigiri sushi already contains a bit of wasabi between the rice and fish; when eating sashimi, a little wasabi mixed into your soy sauce is okay.

4. Bite once. Sashimi, nigiri sushi, and maki rolls should be consumed in one bite if possible. Having said that, the size of slices of fish and rolls in Japan tends to be much smaller than the super-sized stuff we get in the States. Let’s just say that if you can’t eat your sushi or roll in two bites, you probably shouldn’t be eating it at all.

5. Eat in order. Appreciating sushi means detecting subtle flavor, temperature, and texture. Start with sashimi, then sushi with rice, then miso soup. Pickled ginger should be eaten only as a palate cleanser between bites. And if what you’re eating contains cream cheese, pineapple, barbecued pork, or fried chicken, it’s not really sushi.

Source: http://www.bonappetit.com/columns/the-foodist/article/sushi-etiquette-101

Categories: howto

Mealworms Wiggle Their Way on to Menus

January 28, 2014

Asuka and Nara periods

Iron helmet and armor with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.

1 4

Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD that led to a Japanese retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka no Ōe (Emperor Tenji) in 646 AD. This edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang Dynasty political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, and philosophy.[3] As part of the Taihō Code, of 702 AD, and the later Yōrō Code,[4] the population was required to report regularly for census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Mommu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males was drafted into the national military. These soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in return were exempted from duties and taxes.[3] This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system. It was called “Gundan-Sei” (軍団制) by later historians and is believed to have been short-lived.[citation needed]

3

The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor. Those of 6th rank and below were referred to as “samurai” and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these “samurai” were civilian public servants, the name is believed[by whom?] to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to as “samurai” for many more centuries.[citation needed]

2

Heian period

In the early Heian period, the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kammu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, but the armies he sent to conquer the rebellious Emishi people lacked motivation and discipline, and failed in their task.[citation needed] Emperor Kammu introduced the title of sei’i-taishōgun (征夷大将軍) or Shogun, and began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery (kyūdō), these clan warriors became the Emperor’s preferred tool for putting down rebellions.[citation needed] Though this is the first known use of the “Shogun” title, it was a temporary title, and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time (the 7th to 9th century) the Imperial Court officials considered them merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.

Ultimately, Emperor Kammu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor’s power gradually declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto (京都) assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless.[citation needed]

Samurai on horseback, wearing ō-yoroi armour, carrying bow (yumi) and arrows in a yebira quiver

Through protective agreements and political marriages, they accumulated, or gathered, political power, eventually surpassing the traditional aristocracy.[citation needed]

Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, and by the mid-Heian period they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons, and laid the foundations of Bushidō, their ethical code.[citation needed]

After the Genpei war of the late 12th century, a clan leader Minamoto no Yoritomo obtained the right to appoint shugo and jito, and was allowed to organize soldiers and police, and to collect a certain amount of tax. Initially, their responsibility was restricted to arresting rebels and collecting needed army provisions, and they were forbidden from interfering with Kokushi Governors, but their responsibility gradually expanded and thus the samurai-class appeared as the political ruling power in Japan. Minamoto no Yoritomo opened the Kamakura Bakufu Shogunate in 1192.

Kamakura Bakufu and the rise of samurai

Samurai ō-yoroi armour, Kamakura period. Tokyo National Museum.

Originally the emperor and nobility employed these warriors. In time, they amassed enough manpower, resources and political backing in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government. As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though originally sent to provincial areas for a fixed four-year term as a magistrate, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period. Because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the court. Their involvement in the Hōgen in the late Heian period consolidated their power, and finally pitted the rival Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160.

The winner, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor, and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the emperor to figurehead status. However, the Taira clan was still very conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the clan had its women marry emperors and exercise control through the emperor.

The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again in 1180, beginning the Gempei War, which ended in 1185. Samurai fought at the naval battle of Dan-no-ura, at the Shimonoseki Strait which separates Honshu and Kyushu in 1185. The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy. In 1190 he visited Kyoto and in 1192 became Sei’i-taishōgun, establishing the Kamakura Shogunate, or Kamakura Bakufu. Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the Shogunate in Kamakura, near his base of power. “Bakufu” means “tent government”, taken from the encampments the soldiers would live in, in accordance with the Bakufu’s status as a military government.[5]

Over time, powerful samurai clans became warrior nobility, or “buke”, who were only nominally under the court aristocracy. When the samurai began to adopt aristocratic pastimes like calligraphy, poetry and music, some court aristocrats in turn began to adopt samurai customs. Despite machinations and brief periods of rule by emperors, real power was then in the hands of the Shogun and the samurai.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum pellentesque nibh sapien, ac faucibus diam dapibus sit amet. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Suspendisse in nulla vestibulum, venenatis libero vel, placerat mi. Sed a commodo sem. Suspendisse potenti. Sed in hendrerit tortor, convallis convallis risus. Mauris ut congue dolor. Aliquam elit turpis, viverra et arcu sit amet, tristique blandit magna. Morbi egestas tincidunt tempus. Vivamus ac ultricies elit. In porttitor, tortor at mattis hendrerit, sapien odio tristique ante, ac tristique nibh sem eu dui. Maecenas ultrices sem turpis, ut tincidunt leo dignissim eget.

Nam consectetur rhoncus magna at aliquam. Quisque lorem ipsum, dictum vitae porttitor at, pellentesque sit amet massa. Praesent hendrerit enim vitae cursus consequat. Sed in pulvinar erat. Aenean eget sagittis augue, convallis tincidunt nulla. Vivamus eu neque tincidunt, convallis tortor hendrerit, feugiat lectus. In non luctus elit, tempor ultricies augue. Quisque rutrum purus ac diam tempor facilisis. Cras scelerisque commodo felis, tincidunt egestas justo rhoncus vitae. Proin dignissim tincidunt nunc, sit amet eleifend risus suscipit et. Etiam pellentesque scelerisque justo at vulputate.

Categories: blog

Sushi Breaking Through to Breakfast Market Sushi

January 28, 2014

Asuka and Nara periods

Iron helmet and armor with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.

Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD that led to a Japanese retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka no Ōe (Emperor Tenji) in 646 AD. This edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang Dynasty political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, and philosophy.[3] As part of the Taihō Code, of 702 AD, and the later Yōrō Code,[4] the population was required to report regularly for census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Mommu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males was drafted into the national military. These soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in return were exempted from duties and taxes.[3] This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system. It was called “Gundan-Sei” (軍団制) by later historians and is believed to have been short-lived.

sushis-post-image

The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor. Those of 6th rank and below were referred to as “samurai” and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these “samurai” were civilian public servants, the name is believed[by whom?] to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to as “samurai” for many more centuries.[citation needed]


In the early Heian period, the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kammu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, but the armies he sent to conquer the rebellious Emishi people lacked motivation and discipline, and failed in their task.[citation needed] Emperor Kammu introduced the title of sei’i-taishōgun (征夷大将軍) or Shogun, and began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery (kyūdō), these clan warriors became the Emperor’s preferred tool for putting down rebellions.[citation needed] Though this is the first known use of the “Shogun” title, it was a temporary title, and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time (the 7th to 9th century) the Imperial Court officials considered them merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.

Ultimately, Emperor Kammu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor’s power gradually declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto (京都) assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless.[citation needed]

Samurai on horseback, wearing ō-yoroi armour, carrying bow (yumi) and arrows in a yebira quiver

Through protective agreements and political marriages, they accumulated, or gathered, political power, eventually surpassing the traditional aristocracy.[citation needed]

Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, and by the mid-Heian period they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons, and laid the foundations of Bushidō, their ethical code.[citation needed]

After the Genpei war of the late 12th century, a clan leader Minamoto no Yoritomo obtained the right to appoint shugo and jito, and was allowed to organize soldiers and police, and to collect a certain amount of tax. Initially, their responsibility was restricted to arresting rebels and collecting needed army provisions, and they were forbidden from interfering with Kokushi Governors, but their responsibility gradually expanded and thus the samurai-class appeared as the political ruling power in Japan. Minamoto no Yoritomo opened the Kamakura Bakufu Shogunate in 1192.

Kamakura Bakufu and the rise of samurai

Samurai ō-yoroi armour, Kamakura period. Tokyo National Museum.

Originally the emperor and nobility employed these warriors. In time, they amassed enough manpower, resources and political backing in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government. As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though originally sent to provincial areas for a fixed four-year term as a magistrate, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period. Because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the court. Their involvement in the Hōgen in the late Heian period consolidated their power, and finally pitted the rival Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160.

The winner, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor, and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the emperor to figurehead status. However, the Taira clan was still very conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the clan had its women marry emperors and exercise control through the emperor.

The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again in 1180, beginning the Gempei War, which ended in 1185. Samurai fought at the naval battle of Dan-no-ura, at the Shimonoseki Strait which separates Honshu and Kyushu in 1185. The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy. In 1190 he visited Kyoto and in 1192 became Sei’i-taishōgun, establishing the Kamakura Shogunate, or Kamakura Bakufu. Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the Shogunate in Kamakura, near his base of power. “Bakufu” means “tent government”, taken from the encampments the soldiers would live in, in accordance with the Bakufu’s status as a military government.[5]

Over time, powerful samurai clans became warrior nobility, or “buke”, who were only nominally under the court aristocracy. When the samurai began to adopt aristocratic pastimes like calligraphy, poetry and music, some court aristocrats in turn began to adopt samurai customs. Despite machinations and brief periods of rule by emperors, real power was then in the hands of the Shogun and the samurai.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Vestibulum pellentesque nibh sapien, ac faucibus diam dapibus sit amet. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Suspendisse in nulla vestibulum, venenatis libero vel, placerat mi. Sed a commodo sem. Suspendisse potenti. Sed in hendrerit tortor, convallis convallis risus. Mauris ut congue dolor. Aliquam elit turpis, viverra et arcu sit amet, tristique blandit magna. Morbi egestas tincidunt tempus. Vivamus ac ultricies elit. In porttitor, tortor at mattis hendrerit, sapien odio tristique ante, ac tristique nibh sem eu dui. Maecenas ultrices sem turpis, ut tincidunt leo dignissim eget.

Nam consectetur rhoncus magna at aliquam. Quisque lorem ipsum, dictum vitae porttitor at, pellentesque sit amet massa. Praesent hendrerit enim vitae cursus consequat. Sed in pulvinar erat. Aenean eget sagittis augue, convallis tincidunt nulla. Vivamus eu neque tincidunt, convallis tortor hendrerit, feugiat lectus. In non luctus elit, tempor ultricies augue. Quisque rutrum purus ac diam tempor facilisis. Cras scelerisque commodo felis, tincidunt egestas justo rhoncus vitae. Proin dignissim tincidunt nunc, sit amet eleifend risus suscipit et. Etiam pellentesque scelerisque justo at vulputate.

Categories: blog

Gochujang, Will it Overpower the Sriracha Craze?

January 28, 2014

Asuka and Nara periods

Iron helmet and armor with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun era, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.

1 4

Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD that led to a Japanese retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka no Ōe (Emperor Tenji) in 646 AD. This edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang Dynasty political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, and philosophy.[3] As part of the Taihō Code, of 702 AD, and the later Yōrō Code,[4] the population was required to report regularly for census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Mommu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males was drafted into the national military. These soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in return were exempted from duties and taxes.[3] This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system. It was called “Gundan-Sei” (軍団制) by later historians and is believed to have been short-lived.[citation needed]

3

The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor. Those of 6th rank and below were referred to as “samurai” and dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these “samurai” were civilian public servants, the name is believed[by whom?] to have derived from this term. Military men, however, would not be referred to as “samurai” for many more centuries.[citation needed]

2

Heian period

In the early Heian period, the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kammu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, but the armies he sent to conquer the rebellious Emishi people lacked motivation and discipline, and failed in their task.[citation needed] Emperor Kammu introduced the title of sei’i-taishōgun (征夷大将軍) or Shogun, and began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery (kyūdō), these clan warriors became the Emperor’s preferred tool for putting down rebellions.[citation needed] Though this is the first known use of the “Shogun” title, it was a temporary title, and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time (the 7th to 9th century) the Imperial Court officials considered them merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.

Ultimately, Emperor Kammu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor’s power gradually declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto (京都) assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless.[citation needed]

Samurai on horseback, wearing ō-yoroi armour, carrying bow (yumi) and arrows in a yebira quiver

Through protective agreements and political marriages, they accumulated, or gathered, political power, eventually surpassing the traditional aristocracy.[citation needed]

Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, and by the mid-Heian period they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons, and laid the foundations of Bushidō, their ethical code.[citation needed]

After the Genpei war of the late 12th century, a clan leader Minamoto no Yoritomo obtained the right to appoint shugo and jito, and was allowed to organize soldiers and police, and to collect a certain amount of tax. Initially, their responsibility was restricted to arresting rebels and collecting needed army provisions, and they were forbidden from interfering with Kokushi Governors, but their responsibility gradually expanded and thus the samurai-class appeared as the political ruling power in Japan. Minamoto no Yoritomo opened the Kamakura Bakufu Shogunate in 1192.

Kamakura Bakufu and the rise of samurai

Samurai ō-yoroi armour, Kamakura period. Tokyo National Museum.

Originally the emperor and nobility employed these warriors. In time, they amassed enough manpower, resources and political backing in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government. As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though originally sent to provincial areas for a fixed four-year term as a magistrate, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period. Because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the court. Their involvement in the Hōgen in the late Heian period consolidated their power, and finally pitted the rival Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160.

The winner, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor, and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the emperor to figurehead status. However, the Taira clan was still very conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the clan had its women marry emperors and exercise control through the emperor.

The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again in 1180, beginning the Gempei War, which ended in 1185. Samurai fought at the naval battle of Dan-no-ura, at the Shimonoseki Strait which separates Honshu and Kyushu in 1185. The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy. In 1190 he visited Kyoto and in 1192 became Sei’i-taishōgun, establishing the Kamakura Shogunate, or Kamakura Bakufu. Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the Shogunate in Kamakura, near his base of power. “Bakufu” means “tent government”, taken from the encampments the soldiers would live in, in accordance with the Bakufu’s status as a military government.[5]

Over time, powerful samurai clans became warrior nobility, or “buke”, who were only nominally under the court aristocracy. When the samurai began to adopt aristocratic pastimes like calligraphy, poetry and music, some court aristocrats in turn began to adopt samurai customs. Despite machinations and brief periods of rule by emperors, real power was then in the hands of the Shogun and the samurai.

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Mediterranean Cuisine a Hot Commodity for Spring

January 28, 2014

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Nam consectetur rhoncus magna at aliquam. Quisque lorem ipsum, dictum vitae porttitor at, pellentesque sit amet massa. Praesent hendrerit enim vitae cursus consequat. Sed in pulvinar erat. Aenean eget sagittis augue, convallis tincidunt nulla. Vivamus eu neque tincidunt, convallis tortor hendrerit, feugiat lectus. In non luctus elit, tempor ultricies augue. Quisque rutrum purus ac diam tempor facilisis. Cras scelerisque commodo felis, tincidunt egestas justo rhoncus vitae. Proin dignissim tincidunt nunc, sit amet eleifend risus suscipit et. Etiam pellentesque scelerisque justo at vulputate.

 

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chopsticks

January 28, 2014

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Amazing Sushi Paltter

January 28, 2014

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sushi-slide1

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Hello world!

January 28, 2014

Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging!

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Typography

January 11, 2014

Dropcaps

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Heading 1

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Heading 2

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Heading 3

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Heading 4

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Heading 5

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List

  • First position
  • Second position
  • Third position
  1. First position
  2. Second position
  3. Third position

Blockquote

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Columns

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc adipiscing est in rhoncus dignissim. Aliquam aliquet ac turpis sed lacinia. Nullam in egestas libero. Nunc dapibus ante ac leo ornare, vel scelerisque tellus feugiat. Curabitur molestie mattis adipiscing. Suspendisse condimentum libero eu ultrices porta. Duis venenatis nibh sed rutrum venenatis.

 

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc adipiscing est in rhoncus dignissim. Aliquam aliquet ac turpis sed lacinia. Nullam in egestas libero. Nunc dapibus ante ac leo ornare, vel scelerisque tellus feugiat. Curabitur molestie mattis adipiscing. Suspendisse condimentum libero eu ultrices porta. Duis venenatis nibh sed rutrum venenatis..

 

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Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc adipiscing est in rhoncus dignissim. Aliquam aliquet ac turpis sed lacinia. Nullam in egestas libero. Nunc dapibus ante ac leo ornare, vel scelerisque tellus feugiat. Curabitur molestie mattis adipiscing. Suspendisse condimentum libero eu ultrices porta. Duis venenatis nibh sed rutrum venenatis.
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc adipiscing est in rhoncus dignissim. Aliquam aliquet ac turpis sed lacinia. Nullam in egestas libero. Nunc dapibus ante ac leo ornare, vel scelerisque tellus feugiat. Curabitur molestie mattis adipiscing. Suspendisse condimentum libero eu ultrices porta. Duis venenatis nibh sed rutrum venenatis.

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